Photographer's Note

Cathedral Church of the Polish Army of Mary Queen of Poland, Warsaw

Built in 1642, at the request of King Ladislaus IV of the Order of Piarists as a small wooden church of Our Lady of Victory. After being burnt down by the Swedes, it was rebuilt as a brick church in the Baroque style, designed by Jakub Fontana. After the November Uprising the church was renamed the Orthodox Church, and its Baroque dcor was removed from the interior, and on its towers (which had been covered with characteristic domes), bells cast from cannons were hung. Their sound was intended to suppress all patriotic sentiment. After Poland regained independence, the church was transferred to the ownership
of the army and served as the garrison church.
During the Nazi occupation, the church was given to German Catholics and their chaplains, while for Poles, a private chapel headed by Military Bishop Joseph Gawlin was made available. During the Warsaw Uprising, an oath was taken here by the troops before heading into battle. After the war, the church lacked space for the Military Bishop of the Polish Army, so the Communist authorities established a substitute for the military ministry, one General Dean. From 1991, the church has been the headquarters of the Military Department of the Polish Army.
In the temple, the two chapels are very much worth noting: the Katyń Chapel commemorates the martyrdom of 21,857 of Polish prisoners of war and prisoners who were murdered in the spring of 1940 by the Soviets in Katyń, Kharkov and Mednoye. The second chapel is the Chapel of Our Lady of Ostra Brama.

Warsaw

Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River roughly 260 kilometres (160 mi) from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population as of June 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855, and the Warsaw metropolitan area at approximately 2,631,902. The area of the city covers 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the city's agglomeration covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi) (Warsaw Metro Area Obszar Metropolitalny Warszawy). Warsaw is the 9th largest city in the European Union by population.
"Warszawianka" is widely considered the unofficial anthem of Warsaw. On 9 November 1940 the City of Warsaw was awarded the Silver Cross of Poland's supreme military decoration for courage in the face of the enemy, the Order Virtuti Militari for the heroic defence in 1939.
Warsaw is also known as the "phoenix city", as it recovered from extensive damage during World War II (during which 80% of its buildings were destroyed), being rebuilt with the effort of Polish citizens. Warsaw has given its name to the Warsaw Confederation, Warsaw Pact, the Duchy of Warsaw, Warsaw Convention, Treaty of Warsaw, Warsaw Uprising and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.(Skyscrapers of Warsaw & wikipedia)

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Additional Photos by George Rumpler (Budapestman) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 8900 W: 3 N: 20435] (82620)
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